Telecommunications Abbreviations Dictionary: A-I J-Z
- 2BASE-TL - IEEE EFM Standard
- 3G - the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology; it supercedes 2G.
- 4G - the fourth generation of mobile phone standards and technology; it supercedes 3G.
- 8xx - 800, 866, 877 or 888 - prefix for toll free numbers in the USA and Canada.
- ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - as opposed to SDSL, the download speed to the customer premises is greater than the upload speed into the Internet, for example, the following are some typical speed options: 1.5 Mb x 128 Kbps, 1.5 Mb x 256 Kbps, 3 Mbps x 384 Kbps, 3 Mbps x 512 Kbps
- AMI - Alternate Mark Inversion - a type of line coding that has been used for T1 and E1 services. It has been replaced in more recent networks by B8ZS, HDB3, and other codes.
- ASN - Autonomous System Number - Used for routing on Internet
- BCDR - Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
- BGP - Border Gateway Protocol - BGP is used to accomplish load balancing when you have more than one dedicated circuit from more than one ISP
- BI - Business Intelligence
- BPL - Broadband over Power Lines
- BTN - Billing Telephone Number
- BW - bandwidth
- CallerID - A service which transmits the caller's phone number to the called party along with the ringing signal. See CNAM.
- CAS - Channel Associated Signaling - a form of digital communications signaling in which the routing information directing the payload to its destination is in band; i.e., within the same channels as voice and/or data transmission, as opposed to out-of-band; i.e., on a separate control channel. See CCS.
- CBR - Committed Bit Rate
- CCIS - Common Channel Interoffice Signaling - a form of out-of-band-signaling. See CCS.
- CCS - Common Channel Signaling aka as CCIS - a form of digital communications signaling in which the routing information directing the payload to its destination is out-of-band; i.e., on a separate control channel than voice and/or data transmission, as opposed to in band; i.e., within the same channels. See CAS.
- CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access - a wireless technology using TIA/EIA IS-95 protocol that allows multiple cell phones to share bandwidth used by carriers such as Sprint and Verizon Wireless.
- CDR - Call Detail Record
- CDR - Committed Data Rate - bandwidth equivalent of the port at each customer location.
- CE - Customer Edge of network - Customer equipment connected to a Ethernet service
- CEF - CISCO Express Forwarding - an industry standard for binding data Ts together without voice or video service.
- CET - Carrier Ethernet Transport - an architectural approach to building scalable transport infrastructure for supporting the evolution to NGNs that integrates Ethernet tunnel switching and intelligent WDM (WDM giving the ability to do multi-degree switching at wavelength and sub wavelength levels).
- CIR - Committed Information Rate
- CLEC - Competitive Local Exchange Carrier - a phone company that competes with an ILEC.
- CNAM - Calling Name Delivery - a service which transmits the caller's name in addition to the caller's phone number to the called party along with the ringing signal. See CallerID.
- CO - Central Office - This is the building near your location that your phone and internet lines run to.
- COS - Class of Service - IP traffic prioritization
- CPNI - Customer Proprietary Network Information - individually identifiable information that is created by a customerís relationship with a communications provider, for example, data about the duration, frequency and timing of calls, information on a customerís bill and call detail information.
- CRDD - Customer Requested Due Date - Date by which customer would like to have service turned on.
- CSU - Channel Service Unit - For digital lines, provides termination for the digital signal and ensures connection integrity through error correction and line monitoring.
- CSU/DSU - Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit - Connects a digital line (e.g., T1 or DS3) to a LAN; typically routers have CSU/DSUs built in.
- CWDM - Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing - This technology greatly increases the carrying capacity of fiber optic cables. It uses up to 8 different wavelengths for different channels. See DWDM.
- DC - Data Center
- DDR - double-data rate - normally applied to DRAM
- DECT - Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications - a digital wireless telephone 3G technology using TDMA over radio frequencies (1880-1900 MHz in Europe and many other areas; 1920-1930 MHz, or 1.9 GHz in the USA) to cordless phones.
- DeMarc - Demarcation Point - point where telecommunications facilities owned by one organization interface with those of another organization - typically the point at an organization's floor telephone closet were organization circuit(s) interfaces with the telephone service provider's circuit(s).
- DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - Protocol by which IP addresses and other parameters are assigned to clients for a certain time period (Lease).
- DIA - Dedicated Internet Access - This includes fractional T1, T1, bonded T1, fractional T3, DS3, and OC3 service.
- DID - Direct Inward Dialing - A feature that allows there to be more direct dial phone numbers than there are lines into a location. When a call comes through, the number that was dialed is passed with the call so that a PBX can handle the call in a prescribed manner. For example, there may be 100 offices within a building with only 20 phone lines coming in from the phone company. With 100 DIDs, the PBX can send an incoming call to whichever of the 100 offices is assigned the DID that was dialed.
- DLCI - Data Link Connection Identifier
- DMH - Dual Mobile Handset - a handset that has Wi-Fi and traditional cellular offerings in one device.
- DOCSIS- Data Over Cable Service Interface Sepecification - DOCSIS is an international telecommunications standard that permits the addition of high-speed data transfer to an existing Cable TV (CATV) system. Many cable providers use DOCSIS to provide Internet access over their HFC infrastructure.
- DoS - Denial of Service
- DRAM - dynamic random access memory
- DSL - Digital Subscriber Line - a family of technologies that offers digital data transmission between the local phone company Central Office and the customer. Typically, DSL speeds range between 128 Kbps and 3 Mbps. See ADSL, IDSL and SDSL for some of the different options. Cost and reliability of DSL service is less than that of T1 service.
- DSLAM- DSL access multiplexor
- DSM - Dynamic Spectrum Management.
- DSU - Data Service Unit - For digital lines, converts T1 or T3 line frames into frames the LAN can interpret and vice versa; it manages timing errors and signal regeneration.
- DTO - direct termination overflow - a feature whereby a call being terminated on a phone trunk can be forwarded to a 10-digit phone number if the trunks are full.
- DVI - Digital Visual Interface
- DWDM - Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing - This technology exponentially increases the carrying capacity of fiber optic cables. It uses up to 40 different wavelengths for different channels. Only a handful of the largest telecommunications providers operate commercial DWDM networks. Few organizations are large enough to need such capacity.
- EDGE - Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution - a wireless broadband technology similar to EVDO but used on GSM networks. EDGE download speeds range from 100 Kbps to 300 Kbps.
- EFM - Ethernet in the First Mile
- EIGRP- Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
- EIR - Exceeded Information Rate
- E-LAN - Ethernet LAN - multipoint to multipoint service - totally meshed network
- EMI - Enterprise Mobile Integration - allows extension of PBX functions to a cell phone.
- Enum - Electronic Numbering - an IETF standard expected to marry PSTN to IP networks
- EoC - Ethernet over Copper
- EoDS1- Ethernet over DS1
- EoDs3- Ethernet over DS3
- EoF - Ethernet over fiber
- EoTDM- Ethernet over TDM
- EoX - Ethernet over Copper, DS1, DS3, or TDM
- EPL - Ethernet Private Line - point-to-point EVC
- EPVC - Enterprise PVC
- E-UNI - Ethernet User-to-Network Interface - the point of demarc between the MEN and the CE.
- EUCL - End User Common Line charge aka as the subscriber line charge - a monthly charge added to phone, voice T1 and PRI bills to cover state and federal charges. The EUCL is part of the FCC-mandated tariffed access charges that recover LEC costs associated with the origination and termination of interstate calls.
- EVC - Ethernet virtual connection - connects two or more E-UNIs across the MEN.
- EVDO - also abbreviated as EV-DO, EvDO, 1xEV-DO or 1xEvDO - Evolution Data Only or Evolution Data Optimized - a wireless radio broadband data protocol used with CDMA featuring download speeds possibly up to 3.1 Mbps (Rev. A). Today's average EV-DO download speeds average 300 Kbps to 500 Kbps with peak rates of 2.4 Mbps. Upload speeds average 50 Kbps to 70 Kbps with peak rates of 144 Kbps.
- EVDO card - card that plugs into the PCMCIA slot on your laptop (almost all laptops have a PCMCIA slot), and as long as you can pick up a decent signal from that carrier's cell tower, you can get online with your laptop and this manufacturer-specific air card - aka "air card".
- EVPL - Ethernet Virtual Private Line - point-to-multipoint EVC = a hub and spoke
- FAP - Fair Access Policy - A policy that allows everyone over a satellite connection to have access to a certain minimum bandwidth. To accomplish this, a transmission limit is enforced. When a user exceeds the limit, their bandwidth is severely limited for a certain period of time that may vary from a day to a month. It's important to read the providers Terms of Service to understand the exact policy.
- FMC - Fixed Mobile Convergence - the integration of landline and wireless technologies and services into a single telecommunications network.
- FOC - Firm Order Commit Date - Outside Wiring Date
- FroSDSL - Frame over SDSL
- FTTH - Fiber-to-the home
- FTTN - Fiber-to-the-node - broadband service offered by some carriers, for example, AT&T, Qwest and Bell Canada
- FTTP - Fiber to the premises
- FTTX - Fiber to the neighborhood, for example, Verizon's FiOS.
- FXO - Foreign Exchange Office - a telephone signaling interface or device that works with POTS by generating off-hook and on-hook indications at the FXS's end of a telephone circuit. Examples of FXO devices are standard analog telephones, fax machines, analog modems, and PBXs.
- FXS - Foreign Exchange Station - a telephone interface which supplies battery power, dialtone, and ringing voltage via a special line run between a local FXO device and a remote CO/LEC switch or PBX switch. The local FXO device is assigned a number on a remote switch; and for all inbound and outbound calls, the device acts like it is connected directly to the remote switch.
- GFP - Generic framing procedure - GFP can be used to import non-traditional services such as Ethernet and storage area networks to Sonet.
- GPS - Global positioning satellite - GPS chips, embedded in equipment, communicate with GPS satellites to identify the equipment's location.
- GRE - Generic Routing Encapsulation
- GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications - cellular technology used in over 100 countries by carriers such as T-Mobile.
- HDMI - High-Definition Multimedia Interface
- HFC - Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Network - A HFC network is comprised of optical fiber cable in some parts and coaxial cable in other parts. Typically fiber is installed from the cable head-end (distribution center) to serving nodes. The serving nodes are connected directly to businesses and homes.
- HPNA - Home Phone Network Alliance - Version 3.1 is a recognized ITU standard that can use copper pairs and/or coax to distribute multimedia applications throughout a home at up to 320 Mbps.
- HSPA - High Speed Packet Access - an attractive option to 3G with download bandwidth between 3.6 and 14.4 Mbps. HSPA+ can give even higher bandwiths - up to 21 Mbps.
- HSRP - Hot Standby Router Protocol
- HSUPA - High Speed Uplink Packet Access
- IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service
- IAD - Integrated Access Device - Device used to breakout voice lines from data channels on a T1; usually has built-in router functionality; depending on the carrier, voice lines can be delivered either as digital or analog (DS1 or PRI).
- IAM - Identity and Access Management
- ICB - Individual Case Basis - Pricing that is not standard but that must be developed manually for special situations.
- ICT - Information and Communications Technology.
- IDSL - ISDN Digital Subscriber Line: DSL service with limited availability. Allows 18,000-feet coverage and a upstream and downstream bandwidth of 144 kbit/s, slightly higher than the bandwidth of a bonded dual channel ISDN connection at 128kbit/s.
- ILEC - Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier - the phone company that was providing local telephone service when the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was enacted.
- IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem - a Next Generation Networking architecture that supports a wide range of IP-based applications over packet-switched and circuit-switched networks using SIP. IMS allows network operators and service providers to control and charge for each service; it merges the Internet and Cellular worlds.
- IoT - The Internet of Things - refers to the idea that numerous devices will be connected to the Internet in the near future, not only desktops, laptops, tablets, and smart phones but also alarm systems, toasters, thermostats, and many other objects.
- IP - Internet Protocol; Internet Pipe
- IPAM - IP Address Management - usually accomplished using spreadsheet, database, or other automated tools.
- IPP - Internet Printing Protocol - allows you to print to a network printer by specifying the device's URL
- IPS - Intrusion-prevention system - system loaded with filters taht halt attacks against system vulnerabilities
- IPsec- Internet Protocol security
- IPT - IP Telephony
- IPTV - Internet Protocol Television - Video programming or Video Conferencing delivered using IP.
- IRU - Irrefutable Rights of Use contract - Typically, a 10 or 20 year contract whereby bandwidth is sold by one carrier to another. Usually, no money changes hands but it involves a trade of bandwith.
- ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
- ISP - Internet Service Provider
- IVR - Interactive Voice Response
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